Riparian zones are those areas that surround water bodies in the watershed and are composed of moist to saturated soils, water-loving plant species and their associated ecosystems.
The Coastal Douglas-fir is the smallest of the 14 BC ecosystems listed in the Biogeoclimatic Ecosystem Classification system and is restricted to low elevations along southeastern Vancouver Island and a narrow strip along the Sunshine Coast.
The Coastal Western Hemlock ecosystem dominates most of the coast of British Columbia.
Garry oak meadows were once common throughout southeastern Vancouver Island.
Inland cliffs and bluffs form a tiny part of the mosaic of ecosystems in the landscape of southern Vancouver Island.